Computer motherboard


The motherboard is a piece of fiberglass, usually dark green in color. Chips are soldered to it and then connected by tiny copper wires which look likes little roads all over the motherboard.
It is the main piece of circuitry inside PC. It is important things inside the PC. The following electronic parts are present on the motherboard.

* Microprocessor.
* Random access memory(RAM)chips.
* Read only memory(ROM)chips.
* Expansion slots and special expansion cards that plug into them.
* Other support circuitry.

Electricity is supplied through everything via a thin metal sheet sandwiched in the middle of the motherboard itself. Of course, to make it practical, you need a power supply unit, monitor, keyboard, disk drives and so on. The function of various units on the motherboard are discussed below.



1. Normally a motherboard supports a single type of CPU and few types of memories.
2. Motherboard varies greatly in supporting various types of components.
3. Hard disks, sound cards, video cards have to compatible with the motherboard to function properly.
4. Motherboards, cases and power supplies must be compatible to work properly together.


This is the main chip, which controls the arithmetic calculations and logical operations in the computer. The type of the machine depends on the microprocessor used. The following table lists the popular codes assigned to microprocessor along with technical details associated with each.

Random Access Memory(RAM)Chips
It is a component of the motherboard close to the microprocessor. RAM exists as a series of tiny chips called RAM chips. They are in the form of a set of chips on the motherboard, which serve as the primary base memory of the computer. The base memory comprises of 640 KB capacity or 5 chip each of 128 KB capacity. You can add more to the computer by plugging in more RAM chips either on the motherboard itself or an accessory memory expansion cards. It contains the instructions that the microprocessor tapes through to execute a program. The microprocessor, in turn, stores the information in the memory that it develops while executing the program. There are four types of memory on a PC. They are conventional, high memory area, extended and expanded.

Conventional Memory
Most computers can accommodate up to 640 KB of conventional memory. Programs can use conventional memory without the special instructions needed to use other types of memory. MS-DOS itself uses some of the conventional memory. The device drives and commands listed in the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT use additional conventional memory.

High Memory Area
Most systems have 386 KB of space called the high memory area. This area is immediately adjacent to the 640 KB of conventional memory. The high memory is not considered as part of the total memory of your computer because programs can not store information in this area. This area is normally reserved for running your system hardware, such as your monitor. MS-DOS can use  this memory.

Extended Memory
It is available only on systems with 80286 or higher processors as they have advanced memory accessing and management capabilities. Dos programs to access the extended memory beyond the 640 KB barrier. An extended memory manager has to be installed which is HIMEM.SYS.

Expanded Memory
Expanded memory is slower than extended memory because the window size in conventional memory is small and there is high overhead in shifting the window to view different areas of memory.

Popular manufacturer
1. Intel
2. Asus
3. Abit
4. Aopen
5. Gigabyte
6. Biostar
7. MSI

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